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Raticides, what they are and how it works
Raticides, what they are and how it works

Rats are based on anticoagulant active substances that act by blocking the blood clotting mechanisms in the animal's body, causing it a generalized haemorrhage so that the animal dies 3-8 days after the lethal dose. However, a faster death was observed in 2-3 days, if the animal consumes a larger amount.
These anticoagulants are so powerful that the lethal dose can be taken from a single ingestion. These types of substances are active against rodents resistant to warfarin or other first-generation anticoagulant anticoagulants. They have a much lower toxicity for non-target domestic animals.
Due to the various side-effects, co-formulants (vegetable fats, carbohydrates, flavors, etc.), these raticides show great attractiveness to all rodents, ensuring product consumption even in competition with other sources of food.

There are two major chemical classes of these compounds: hydroxycoumarin derivatives and indanedione derivatives.

Coumarin anticoagulants were developed during World War II and these compounds were introduced as antithrombotic agents for the treatment of thromboembolic disease in humans. For example, warfarin (a hydroxycoumarin derivative) was used both as a therapeutic drug and a rodenticide. Hydroxycoumarin and indandione derivatives have been synthesized and introduced as effective rodenticides; All of these compounds act by interfering with the blood coagulation cascade. These are now considered as the first generation of oral anticoagulants.

Here are a list of these first-generation and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides that have been identified:
First generation - Hydroxycoumarin derivatives: Coumachlor, Coumafuryl, Coumatetralyl, Warfarin, Chlorofacinon, Diphacinone, Pindone, Valone.
Second generation - Indanedione derivatives: Brodifacoum, Bromodiolone, Difenacoum, Difetialone, Flocumafen;

As a way to present raticides can be found as wrinkled, paste paste, paste in tubes, pellet and granules (orally).

List of active substances and raticides containing the active substance, presentation form.

Coumatetralyl is an anticoagulant of the 4-hydroxycoumarin type vitamin K antagonist. Symptoms of overexposure refer to the failure of the blood clotting mechanism and include bleeding of the gums and insufficient blood clotting after skin wounds. After a single exposure, the coumatetralyl toxicity is relatively low, however, if overexposure continues for several days the product becomes more toxic. The product must therefore be consistently present in the blood stream for more than 1 or 2 days in order to To be extremely toxic. A single exposure, although relatively large, can not produce toxic symptoms as a compound is quite rapidly metabolized. Chronic studies in animals show that there is no evidence of carcinogenic or teratogenic effects.

Brodifacoum: is a lethal pesticide (anticoagulant poison) an anticoagulant vitamin K antagonist. In recent years, it has become one of the most widely used pesticides. It is usually used as a rodenticide, but it is also used to control larger pests such as oposum. Brodifacoum may last for several weeks in the body, ranging from a few weeks to several months, requiring prolonged vitamin K treatment for both human and pet intoxications. Brodifacoum is found in the form of fresh bait against mice and rats in the form of pasta, wax, pellet and granules

Bromadiolone: ​​A single 50 mg / kg dose is sufficient to kill. The second generation anticoagulant rodenticide. Prevents blood clotting and prothrombin formation. It is effective against rats and mice resistant to warfarin and coumatetralyl. The second generation anticoagulant rodenticide.

Chlorophacin: Anticoagulant rodenticide is considered to have the fastest effect. It is active at a dose of 0.005% while the coumarin derivatives are active at a dose of 0.025%, 0.03% or 0.05%. Another interesting property is that at a concentration of 0.005% in a single swallow has 96% chances of poisoning, while multiple anticoagulants require more ingestion to achieve a high percentage of mortality.

Difenacoum, a compound derived from coumarin. Anticoagulant rodentivide interferes with the synthesis of blood clotting factors and causes death by hemorrhage. It is useful against a wide range of rodent species, including those resistant to warfarin. Recommended in the preparation of rodent baits in inhabited places, warehouses and industrial areas and agricultural land.

Difetialon: is an anticoagulant used as a rodenticide. In May 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency promulgated a decision that would prohibit the use of difetialone in rodenticide products. Produce slow internal bleeding, as painless as possible.

Flocoum: the death of rodents occurs through generalized vasodilation, seizures with cardiac arrest, within 4-10 days depending on species, race, sex, etc.